Airport Advisory Areas

An airport advisory area is the area within 10 nm of an airport where a flight service station exists. When the control tower is not operating, the flight service station provides advisory services to aircraft flying in and out of that airport.

Military Training Routes (MTR)

Military training routes are plotted to make pilots aware of military traffic that may be traveling along these routes. Military traffic typically travel these routes at low altitudes and high speeds, making them difficult to see. MTR's are designated as those above 1,500 AGL and those below 1,500 AGL, and may be instrument MTR's (IR) or visual MTR's (VR). Typically, those below 1,500 AGL are VR, while those above are IR.

Temporary Flight Restrictions

TFR's are created to protect certain activities, such as a space shuttle launch, for example. During the TFR, air traffic is prohibited from the area. TFR's might exist around anything that could create a temporary hazard to aviation safety, such as a natural disaster or an area that generates a lot of public interest. If these hazards were routine, another type of special use airspace would be designated.

Parachute Jump Areas

Parachute jump areas are created and published to make pilots aware of parachute jumping taking place in that area. You should not fly through an active parachute jump area, since skydivers in free fall are not maneuverable and have no ability to avoid an airplane. Skydivers are virtually impossible to see in freefall.

Published VFR Routes

VFR Flyway

A VFR flyway does not require an air traffic control clearance. A flyway assists pilots in navigating around busy and complex airspace areas. It uses visual references visible from the air to aid pilots. VFR flyways are often very congested with air traffic, which is not separated by air traffic control. If the surface area of a Class B, C, or D airspace will be penetrated, two way communications must be established and maintained with the control tower.

VFR Corridor

A VFR corridor is an area with defined boundaries, which allows VFR traffic to fly through a Class B airspace without communicating with air traffic control. A VFR corridor will be surrounded on all sides by Class B airspace and carry a high volume of air traffic.

Class B VFR Transition Route

Class B transition routes exist in some Class B airspace areas to allow VFR traffic to transition through the airspace on a standard route, which aids to minimize delays. An air traffic control clearance is required.

Terminal Radar Service Areas

Inside a TRSA, air traffic control provides basic radar services. The primary airport inside a TRSA is normally in Class D airspace. Outside of the Class D, however, the rest of the TRSA is normally Class E. This being the case, you would not have to contact any air traffic control to fly through the Class E airspace portion of the TRSA. However, it is a good idea to voluntarily use the services available in a TRSA. These services include sequencing and separation for participating VFR aircraft, safety alerts, traffic advisories, and limited vectoring for VFR aircraft.

A TRSA allows pilots operating under visual flight rules to receive additional radar services, in order to separate participating VFR traffic from IFR traffic. The primary airport inside a TRSA is Class D airspace. Outside of the Class D airspace, the rest of the TRSA is usually Class E airspace. The same airspace rules apply, so you would not have to contact any air traffic control to fly through the Class E airspace portion. However, a TRSA is created for a reason, so it an excellent idea to voluntarily use the additional radar services available in this area. Using these additional services also aids everyone else operating in the TRSA.

National Security Areas

A national security area is created to provide more security for certain ground facilities. Flight into these areas may be temporarily restricted. At other times, pilots are requested to avoid these areas.

Flights are restricted in the vicinity of the President, Vice President, or other important public figures.

Pilot who intend to fly within 60 nautical miles of Washington, DC are required to obtain special awareness training on the procedures used in this area. The pilot must then carry the graduation certificate for this training when in this area.

ยง 91.141 Flight restrictions in the proximity of the Presidential and other parties.