Federal Aviation Regulations
Throughout this course, you have been exposed to relevant aviation regulations.
Before you finish your course of training, relevant regulations should be
studied until you are thoroughly familiar with everything that applies to you
and your operation. Many aspects of the regulation must be memorized,
since looking something up in flight is much less desirable when compared to
knowing and correctly applying the regulations, as necessary.
Just as important as knowing the regulation is the ability to look up a
regulation. Pilot's aren't expected to have everything completely
memorized. But, you must be able to find the answer to questions as they
The regulations that govern aviation are found in CFR Title 14. The
following parts of Title 14 are of primary interest:
Part 1: Definitions and Abbreviations
Part 61: Certification of Pilots, Flight Instructors, and Ground Instructors
Part 91: General Operating and Flight Rules
Additionally, the following parts also contain regulations relevant to private
Part 39: Airworthiness Directives
Part 43: Maintenance, Preventative Maintenance, Rebuilding and Alteration
Part 67: Medical Standards and Certification
CFR Title 49, Part 830 contains the requirements of the National Transportation
Current and complete regulations are available from the government at:
Federal Aviation Regulations:
The regulations may also be obtained in printed form from bookstores and pilot
Aeronautical Information Manual
The aeronautical information manual contains information and recommendations
pertinent to flying. It is an excellent resource, which almost all pilots
become thoroughly familiar. During your private pilot training, you should
read through the portions of the AIM applicable to private pilots. Study
of the AIM will help give you a better understanding of the knowledge you
possess, fill in gaps in your knowledge, and promote correlation of concepts you
World Aeronautical Charts
The WAC is a chart which is designed for use by VFR pilots. It depicts
items visible from the air, such as rivers, roads, and towns, which aid the
pilot in navigating visually. Since the WAC covers a large geographic
area, it is drawn to a small scale of 1:1,000,000 (1 inch = 13.7nm).
WACs are normally revised once per year.
The sectional chart is similar to a WAC, except it is drawn to a scale of
1:500,000 (1 inch = 6.86nm) to provide more detail. The sectional chart is
the chart normally used by pilots for VFR navigation, since this level of detail
is best suited for this purpose.
Sectional charts are normally revised every six months.
VFR Terminal Charts
Near very busy airports, where airspace is complex and visible features are
numerous, terminal charts are published. These charts are drawn on a scale
of 1:250,000 (1 inch = 3.43nm), in order to provide a higher level of detail to
VFR pilots in these areas.
Terminal charts are normally revised every six months.
Obtaining Charts and Publications
The AIM, VFR charts, and all other publications discussed in this course, can be
obtained through the FAA or most FBO's and pilot supply stores. Visit
www.faa.gov, your local airport, or ask your
flight instructor if you need help acquiring a publication.
You are also encouraged to look through the FAA's website, which contains
several publications which are not discussed here, as well as a great deal of
information relevant to private and student pilots.
Latitude and Longitude
Lines of latitude, also referred to as parallels, are imaginary lines that run
east-west around the world. They are used to denote north-south position
of an object in relation to the north pole, south pole, and equator. There
are 90 degrees of latitude between the equator and the north or south pole.
The United States lies between 24 and 49 degrees north latitude.
Lines of longitude, also referred to as meridians, are imaginary lines that run
north-south around the world. They are used to determine an object's
east-west position on the planet in relation to the prime meridian. The
prime meridian passes through Greenwich, England. It is used as the 0
degree mark, from which all east-west position measurements are made.
There are 180 degrees of longitude east of the prime meridian, and 180 degrees
to the west. The United States lies between 67 and 125 degrees west
By using latitude and longitude together, the precise location of an object on
the Earth can be determined. Each degree of latitude and longitude is
broken into 60 minutes, and each minute is broken further into 60 seconds.
By defining the latitude and longitude down to the portion of a second, the
location of an object can be given to within feet.