Obstruction clearance and separation from other air traffic along for the missed approach procedure is provided under the assumption that the pilot will initiate the missed approach from over the missed appoint at the MDA or DA. If the pilot executes a missed approach at some point other than the missed approach point or from an altitude below MDA or DA, clearance from terrain, obstructions, and other air traffic may not be guaranteed.

Let's look at a few situations and see how to best maneuver the aircraft to stay within airspace protected by the approach procedure. The most straight forward scenario involves flying an instrument approach and never seeing anything. In this case, you would simply fly along to the missed approach point and follow the missed approach instructions from there.

There might be a time in which you find yourself approaching an airport at the MDA and getting so close to the airport that you wouldn't be able to safely descend and land even if you suddenly broke out into the clear. You might be thinking "this isn't going to happen" and resign to the fact that you will be going missed. In this situation, it is important not to jump the gun and start flying the missed approach instructions early.

Continue flying the instrument approach's lateral guidance to the missed approach point and stay at or above the MDA. Otherwise, you may exit the area for which the MDA and missed approach altitudes provide terrain and obstruction clearance. When the approach procedure was established, no consideration was given to an aircraft deciding to fly the missed approach instructions prior to the missed approach point.

Should you see the airport and leave the MDA before needing to go missed, things can get a little more complicated. For example, say you just executed the VOR-A approach to Lancaster, Ohio. You break out of the clouds and circled for runway 28. You then lose sight of the airport from a left base position for runway 28, while below the circling MDA. In this situation, it might be tempting to simply proceed directly to Appleton VORTAC while climbing to 3,000 feet. This is not correct, however.

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Instead, you should climb to the circling MDA while turning toward the landing runway. Once you reach the circling MDA, then you can follow the missed approach instructions. In this case, the missed approach instructions call for a climb to 2,000 feet before making the left turn direct APE. Therefore, it is also incorrect to hit the circling MDA and immediately head for APE, as well. You should continue turning toward the landing runway and climbing until you reach 2,000 feet. Then, you can make that left turn to APE.

The goal of all this maneuvering is to stay over the airport, where you are inside the circling area for which the circling MDA applies. Get up to a safe altitude while still over the airport and then join the missed approach as if you simply went missed approach from the missed approach point without ever descending.

Should you have to execute a go around just prior to landing, you could elect to fly a pattern visually and land, weather permitting. Otherwise, you could still go missed from just above the runway. Just fly the plane so as to stay inside that circling area. Remember, no terrain or obstruction clearance of any kind is guaranteed when below the circling MDA, even when inside the circling area.

Anytime you have to go missed approach, let air traffic control know as soon as you can. Often times, ATC will assign you instructions that take you off the published missed approach procedure. You should inform the controller whether your intentions are to make another attempt or proceed to your alternate airport.

Hydroplaning drastically reduces braking effectiveness, and is most likely to occur when landing at high speed on a runway with a smooth texture that is covered in standing water or slush. You should apply moderate braking after the wheels have had time to spin up. Anti-skid should be on, if available.

Tower will close out your IFR flight plan automatically. However, at non-towered airports, you must close your flight plan airborne or on the ground through the flight service station.